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How to make a bearing?


Bearing is an important part of modern mechanical equipment. Its main function is to support the mechanical rotating body, reduce its friction coefficient in the process of motion, and ensure its rotation accuracy.


According to the different friction properties of moving elements, bearings can be divided into rolling bearings and sliding bearings.


The bearing can bear both radial and axial loads. It can work at high speed. The larger the contact angle, the higher the axial bearing capacity. How to make a bearing?


Basic process of bearing manufacturing and processing


1. Rolling element (steel ball) manufacturing basic process:


Raw materials -- cold heading -- smooth grinding -- heat treatment -- hard grinding -- preliminary research -- appearance -- fine grinding


2. Basic manufacturing process of cage (steel plate)


Raw material -- cutting material -- cutting ring -- finishing -- forming -- shaping -- punching rivet hole


3. Basic manufacturing process of ring (inner ring and outer ring)


Raw materials -- forging -- annealing -- turning -- quenching -- tempering -- grinding -- assembling


(1) Forging processing: forging is the initial processing of bearing ring, also known as blank processing.


The main purpose of ring forging is to:


(a) In order to improve the utilization rate of metal materials, save raw materials, reduce the amount of machining and reduce the cost.


(b) The internal defects of metal are eliminated, the metal structure is improved, the metal streamline distribution is reasonable, the metal tightness is good, and the service life of bearing is improved.


Forging method: it is generally in the induction furnace, press, reaming machine and shaping machine to form a line of equipment body for flow operation


(2) Annealing: the main purpose of ring annealing is: spheroidizing annealing of high carbon chromium bearing steel is to obtain the structure of fine, small, uniform and round carbide particles evenly distributed on the ferrite matrix, which is prepared for the later cold working and final quenching and tempering.


Basic annealing process of GCr15SiMn:


It is kept at 790-810 ℃ for 2-6h, cooled to below 600 ℃ at 10-30 ℃ / h, and then cooled out of the furnace for air cooling


(3) Turning: turning is the semi-finished product processing of bearing rings, which can also be said to be forming processing.


The main purpose of turning is to:


(a) The shape of the processed ferrule is exactly the same as that of the final product.


(b) Create favorable conditions for the grinding process.


Turning method:


Centralized process method: complete small batch production of all turning processes on one equipment.


Decentralized process method: mass production of a certain turning process on one equipment.


(4) Heat treatment: heat treatment is the key process to improve the internal quality of bearings.


The main purpose of heat treatment is to:


(a) Through heat treatment, the microstructure of the material is transformed and the mechanical properties of the material are improved.


(b) Improve the bearing internal quality (wear resistance, strength and toughness), so as to improve the bearing life.


For high carbon chromium bearing steel GCr15SiMn, the heat treatment includes quenching and low temperature tempering quenching


Heating temperature: 820-840 (℃) holding time: 1-2h cooling medium: Oil low-temperature tempering:


Heating temperature: 150-180 (℃) holding time: 2-5h cooling mode: air cooling


(5) Grinding: grinding is the final processing of bearing rings and rollers, which is called finished product processing.


The main purpose of grinding is to:


(a) The dimensional accuracy and shape accuracy of the ring can meet the design requirements.


(b) Provide qualified rings and rings for bearing assembly.


Grinding processing method: generally using the decentralized processing method, or connecting multiple equipment through the loading and unloading devices to form a production line for processing, so as to improve the production efficiency.


(6) Bearing assembly: bearing assembly is the last process in the bearing production process, which has an important impact on the bearing performance.


The main purpose of bearing assembly is to:


(a) The parts (outer ring, inner ring, roller and cage) processed by various processes are assembled into bearing products.


(b) According to different technical requirements, the bearing products with various precision, various clearance and other special requirements are assembled.


The main function of the bearing is to support the mechanical rotating body, reduce the friction coefficient in the process of its movement, and ensure its rotation accuracy. It can be understood that it is used to fix the shaft, so that it can only achieve rotation, and control its axial and radial movement. If the bearing doesn't work at all. Because the shaft may move in any direction, and the work requires that the shaft can only rotate.


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